Electrical stimulation is a technique that utilizes an electric current to activate the nerves driving muscles and extremities. Electrical stimulation causes a single muscle or…
Electrical stimulation is a technique that utilizes an electric current to activate the nerves driving muscles and extremities. Electrical stimulation causes a single muscle or group of muscles to contract. Direct current is an electric current whose direction is always fixed with time. This electric current from the electrical stimulation machine moves from the pole which is always the same, from the positive pole to the negative pole.
a. Constant direct current (CDC) (galvanic).
This current is called Galvanic current.
The intensity of the galvanic current can be adjusted, as needed, and it must be very low
b. Uninterrupted direct current (IDC).
c. Alternating Current (AC).
Alternating current is an electric current whose direction is always changing periodically with time. Alternating current is divided into 3 parts:
a. Faradic and sinusoidal currents
b. Interference current
Faradic & Sinusoidal Currents
– Faradic currents.
– Alternating electric current (AC) is not symmetrical.
Short duration: 0.01 ms.
Frequency: 50-100 Hz.
– Sinusoidal currents.
– Symmetrical alternating electric current.
Duration: 10 ms.
Frequency: 50 Hz.
– A Combination of two alternating currents, different medium frequencies, and mutual interference.
– A new frequency arises.
– Frequency Modulation Amplitude = Difference between the two frequencies.
– Deeper penetration.
USAGE OF GALVANIC & FARADIC FLOWS IN MEDICAL
Also called ion transfer. Treatment is by transferring ions into the mucous membrane, through the epidermis. The principle works that the ions with the same charge will repel each other. The purpose of using iontophoresis is to treat local pain, reduce edema, reduce inflammation, and it’s also to kill bacteria.
Skin disorders/diseases, including idiopathic hyperhidrosis, minor injuries, fungal infections.
Contraindications: Patients with a history of allergies, areas whose skin; peeling, healing (new scar tissue), Impaired skin sensation.
HVPGS (High Voltage Pulsed Galvanic Stimulation).
It’s a substitute/modification of pure galvanic (CDC) but it’s rarely used anymore.
Specialty: Gel form. monophase with twin peaks, Duration fixed, in microseconds up to 200 ms, “High” voltage > 100 V.”
HVPGS Clinical Application
Wound healing, Reduction of edema, Pain relief of nerve and muscle stimulation, Stimulation of the circulatory system (through the activation of muscle pumps and sympathetic nerve stimulation).
Contraindications to the HVPGS Application
Circulatory disorders, direct stimulation of the caroticus sinus, stimulation of the heart (especially patients with pacemakers), pregnancy, and epilepsy.
Physiological Effects of Electrical Stimulation
a. Peripheral / peripheral nerve excitation
b. Changes in permeability of non-excitatory tissue cell membranes.
c. Modified formation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
d. Skeletal muscle contraction and its effect on muscle strength, speed of contraction, and resistance to fatigue.
e. The contraction of smooth muscles and relaxation that affects the flow in the arteries and veins.
f. Muscle contraction and its effect on joint movement and synergistic muscle activity.
Galvanic Flow Physiological Effects.
1. It modulates your refract pain with other sensory perceptions and stimulation of endogenous morphine.
2. Vasodilation of blood vessels.
3. Spur muscle contraction.
– Electric current stimulates motor stimulation through increased nerve excitability.
Muscle contractions are beneficial for pumping muscles to increase circulation by increasing back blood flow.
Galvanic Current Therapeutic Effects.
1. Maintaining muscle physiology in the form of muscle contractions.
2. Smooth superficial blood circulation.
The physiological effects of Faradic Currents.
1. Sensory nerve stimulation.
2. Motor nerve stimulation.
3. Contraction effect.
4. Effects on innervated muscles.
5. Chemical effects.
Faradic Current Therapeutic Effects.
1. Facilitate muscle contractions.
2. Re-contracting the function of muscle work.
3. Exercising new muscle functions.
4. Train the paralytic muscle.
5. Prevent and release tissue adhesions.
Electrical therapy is an electrical stimulus that works to deal with several types of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Aside from being done at home, this treatment can also be applied through operating procedures. Electrical therapy to deal with pain has been applied since ancient times, including using an electric shock from fish. With advances in technology and medical science, electrical therapy is now also widely used as a method of handling neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders, by using an electrical stimulation machine.
In the treatment of neurological diseases, this therapy works by sending electrical signals and stimulating the affected nerve so that it inhibits or reduces pain. However, there are many types of neurological diseases with various causes, so whether or not electrical therapy for patients needs to be consulted first to the doctor.
Different Types of Electric Therapy
Below are some types of electrical therapy that are often used:
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
TENS is an electrical therapy using a low voltage battery powered engine to relieve pain. This small machine delivers electrical signals through two electrodes to the nerves where the pain is felt. This method is most often used to deal with bone, muscle, and joint problems such as fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, neck pain, and lower back pain. Allegedly the flow of electricity from these electrodes stimulates nerves sending signals to the brain to inhibit pain. Other allegations, electricity stimulates nerves to produce endorphins or natural pain relievers to inhibit the perception of pain. This TENS electric therapy method is more effective for treating fibromyalgia if coupled with exercise.
Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) or electroacupuncture
This method combines the East and West ways using small devices that deliver electrical signals to nerves through acupuncture needles. EEPIS, known as an alternative to TENS, stimulates the nerves associated with pain. The study found that this nerve stimulation was as effective as the stimulation of acupuncture points to relieve pain and that EEPIS was more effective than TENS in improving sleep quality and physical activity. The combination of EEPIS with treatment using etoricoxib is also effective in reducing chronic knee pain. However, the results of research on this method have not shown consistent results.
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)
Is one method of electrical therapy that requires surgery. This method was initially used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, but now DBS is also used to treat various psychological disorders such as depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
rTMS is an acronym for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation that utilizes electromagnetic waves to send electrical signals as a pain barrier. However, this treatment tends to require more than one session to get maximum results.
Electrical therapy is part of physical therapy in the form of electrical stimulation. Included in these symptoms are lower or upper back pain, pain when moving, headaches, tingling until the sensation is lost or vice versa, it becomes very sensitive. In dealing with neurological diseases, this therapy is thought to work by sending electrical signals and stimulating disrupted nerves so as to inhibit or reduce pain and inflammation, as well as improve muscle function and strength, as well as blood circulation. Other theories also argue that electrical stimulation released into the nerves by using an electrical stimulation machine during therapy pushes the body to produce more endorphins or natural painkillers.
Usually, a light stroke can be helped. Each person is different. If a heavy stroke has been difficult for many years, it needs a process. Even so, until now physical therapists have also questioned whether electrical therapy is really needed.
It’s because the treatment through electrical therapy is relatively passive and the patient almost does nothing while the therapy is applied.
Meanwhile, the most successful treatment programs are known to be determined by the active participation of patients. Learning the right movements and exercise for a patient’s specific condition is the key to healing.
Several types of electrical therapy include Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS), Percutaneous Electrical Nerve stimulation (PENS) or electroacupuncture, Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) which requires surgery, and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS).
TENS is an alternative type of electrical therapy that is most often used since it was first developed in the late 1960s. TENS is also often regarded as the only electrical therapy by the laity, and other electrical therapies such as electroacupuncture are its derivatives.
The way TENS works is by utilizing low-voltage electrical conductors such as home electricity to ease the pain. How it works is quite simple. It works by using a switch that is fitted with two electrical wires and connected to two metal rods of tin or aluminum as a terminal.
The two metals are placed on the floor covered by carpet or materials that do not conduct electricity, then covered with a wet cloth. The patient is asked to step on one cloth, and the therapist will step on the other cloth while regulating the amount of electric current that is delivered to the patient’s body.
However, most showed conflicting results and needed further research. While there are benefits, such as relief of rheumatoid arthritis pain in the hands and osteoarthritis in the knee, only come from small studies.
One fact is certain, TENS and other electrical therapies do not cure pain or treat the underlying problem, although many people recognize that this kind of electrical therapy can relieve short-term pain and find its use beneficial, even if the pain returns.
The experience of some people using electric therapy as an alternative treatment is applied to the environment, and people who are interested in trying the treatment. The electrical therapy has so far succeeded in curing the condition of nerve pain, paralysis, and other health problems. So, how the actual benefits of electrical therapy for health? Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation or TENS is a pain management technique that uses electricity in the electrical stimulation machine to help ease the pain.
TENS has been common therapy which is used for relieving pain since it was first made in around 1960s. However, like some other therapies, TENS results are not a guarantee for a cure. TENS treatment involves placing a small electrode, a device that conducts electricity, on the skin over the diseased part of the body and then holding it with adhesive.
The electrodes are then attached to a machine that releases small electrical waves, sending small electrical impulses through the electrodes to painful joints or areas of the body. It is thought that electrical impulses interfere with messages about the pain that are sent from nerves to the brain.
Electricity blocks the activity of pain receptors, which send pain messages. If the brain doesn’t get messages from nerves, you don’t feel the sensation of pain anymore. Another theory behind TENS electrical nerve stimulation is that the electrical impulses released during therapy encourage the body to produce more endorphins to relieve pain naturally.
The electric current emitted by TENS is very low. Generally, there is a slight sense of warmth or tingling where the electrodes are placed. So far the application of TENS is used to reduce pain from:
Migraines and tension headaches.
Painful chronic injury.
Pain after surgery.
Although it is thought to have many benefits, along with these benefits, it is alleged there are other risks from this electrical therapy treatment. The following are:
Immediately after treatment, you can experience confusion, which lasts from several minutes to several hours. Depending on how long the duration of the electrical therapy you receive.
Some people have difficulty remembering events that occur right before treatment or in the weeks or months before treatment. This condition is called retrograde amnesia.
Physical side effects
Electrical therapy treatments can cause physical side effects such as nausea, headaches, jaw pain, or muscle aches.
They can be suitable or not suitable alternative treatments, and they depend on the immune system and psychological readiness of the person. Complications from other diseases can cause electrical therapy to have side effects. We recommend that before trying any therapy, make sure the physical and psychological condition of the patient is stable.
The appearance of pain makes the body feel weak and triggers frustration because pain can interfere with rest, work, activities, even messing up important moments with family and friends. This unpleasant sensation occurs due to injury or disruption of muscles in body tissues, continued in physical and emotional reactions. Although sometimes the pain also appears to protect the body from danger. Pain is usually classified into acute and chronic pain. Acute pain is the body’s natural reaction to injury as an early warning system when an injury occurs. The pain in acute pain does not last long. While pain in chronic pain lasts longer, and it can be weeks or months. Meanwhile, if you suffer from chronic nerve pain, you may use the best electrical stimulation machine.
Efforts to treat pain vary depending on the cause and condition of one’s health. Therefore we need a complete understanding of the types of pain, classification, and correct handling. One of the management of pain is pain management based on empirical evidence from the results of research or evidence
One of the pain management is pain management that is based on empirical evidence from the results of research or evidence-based, so that treatment can be effective.
Simply stated, pain management is methods to prevent, reduce, and stop the sensation of pain. There are two methods that can be used both through the use of drugs (analgesics) and physiotherapy.
Pain management is right then the pain can be reduced and even disappear. So that a person’s quality of life can improve.
Pain care can also be classified in non-medical or medical care. The medical treatment uses drugs or supplements to reduce pain (analgesics).
However, there are those who choose natural methods without drugs to relieve pain, such as stretching, application of heat or ice.
While there are also those who seek alternative treatments such as acupuncture, acupressure, chiropractic, and massage, as well as therapies involving electronic devices such as TENS or transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, such as those from the Japanese healthcare brands.
This therapy is also called electrothermal therapy because it uses electrical stimulation to relieve pain in the short term.
One of the advantages of TENS is that this tool is very suitable for people who tend to have high activity at work or who still want to move continuously, even though their bodies are in pain.
The study states the intensity of stimulation at the point of pain is a very important factor to get the effectiveness of TENS, besides that this tool is safe, affordable, and can be used together with other pain treatments.